Drapetomania.

People fleeing slavery: Fording the Rappahannock River. Rappahannock, Virginia, August 1862. Thank you, AmericanCivilWar.com.

Drapetomania was a supposed mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity. Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience, and part of the edifice of scientific racism.The term derives from the Greek δραπετης (drapetes, “a runaway [slave]”) + μανια (mania, “madness, frenzy”).

– Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drapetomania

 

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